Costumbrismo Art Movement
Spain 1822 - 1910
Costumbrismo Art Movement, Costumbrista Paintings & Artists.
Costumbrismo from Spanish costumbre meaning 'custom' and known in English as Costumbrism, is an art movement in the painting of local daily existence, characteristics, and traditions, in nineteenth-century Spain and Latin America. Costumbrismo is connected both to Realism and to Romanticism, sharing with the Romantics an interest in personal expression of humanity, while the realist focuses on the precise representation of particular circumstances and places in the abstract. Emerging out of the enthusiasm of romantics in the folk life of common people, Costumbrismo was a move in the direction of a practical depiction of the world, communicating an upsurge of national consciousness and a yearning to convey features of the general population's life, with a glorification of patriarchal ethics and traditions. It is frequently satiric and even moralizing, but unlike proper realism does not typically offer or even suggest a specific examination of the general public it portrays. At the point when not satiric, it's way to deal with quaint folkloric detail often has a romanticizing angle.
The two schools of Costumbrismo art in Spain were the Andalusian Costumbrismo. particularly Seville and The School of Madrid. Andalusian Costumbrismo paintings were romantic, sentimental and folkloric, devoid of social criticism. A lot of their art market was to foreigners for whom Andalusia encapsulated their vision of a Spain distinct from the rest of Europe. The School of Seville painted more carefully, delicately and the compositions are typically tranquil, even misty with the attention being on people as a group.
Andalusian Costumbrismo The School of Seville.
Romantic Andalusian Costumbrismo (Costumbrismo Andaluz) follows in the footsteps of two painters of the School of Cádiz, Juan Rodríguez y Jiménez, and Joaquín Manuel Fernández Cruzado, both related with Romanticism. The trend was continued by the School of Seville, in a city much more on the path of a foreign clientele. The founding figure was José Domínguez Bécquer, who moved to Madrid. Domínguez Bécquer's influence came as both an art teacher and artist.
Other important early figures were Antonio Cabral Bejarano, best known for canvases of people postured against rustic backgrounds, and an atmosphere reminiscent of Bartolome Esteban Murillo, and José Roldán, also very influenced by Murillo, known especially as a painter of children and urchins. Another major painter of the School of Seville was Andrés Cortés.
Typical subject matter included Majos, lower class men who were excessively concerned about their clothes and appearance and their female counterparts called Majas, horsemen, bandits and smugglers, street urchins and beggars, Gypsies, religious and public fiestas.
The School of Madrid Costumbrismo.
The Costumbrismo artists of Madrid were more sour, in some cases even foul, in depicting the life of lower class Madrid. A greater amount of their market was domestic, including to the often snobbish and often more European liberals of the capital. The School of Madrid utilized large masses of strong solid color, painted with an expansive brushstroke, the paintings have a certain urgency about them and artists concentrated more on interesting people.
The School of Madrid was united less by a typical visual style than by a state of mind, and by the impact of Goya as opposed to Bartolome Esteban Murillo. Probably foremost artist was Eugenio Lucas Velázquez, an artistic successor to Goya, he was also a strong influence on Antonio Pérez Rubio and Ángel Lizcano Monedero.
The dark vision of twentieth century Madrid painter José Gutiérrez Solana was influenced by Costumbrismo and also by the Black Paintings of Goya that had so affected the Costumbristas.
Latin American Costumbrismo.
Despite the fact that its related with Spain in the late eighteenth and nineteenth century, Costumbrismo expanded to Latin Americas, incorporating the customs and new traditions of the new countries. Costumbrismo played an essential part in the painting of Latin American countries. It was connected to the study of the new country and was based on the accurate depiction of nature and the simple, and precise reproduction of the characteristics and features of local folk life and culture. At the same time, the portrayal of the ethnic motif in the works of the Costumbristas frequently turned into lovingly recreated, at times idyllic and charming, genre scenes. Costumbrismo understood the aesthetic value of nature and the events of everyday life and introduced simple people into the subject matter of Latin American art.